LA mountain lions, Mumbai leopards

LA mountain lions, Mumbai leopards


Los Angeles and Mumbai, India, share lots of superlatives as pinnacles of cinema, trend, and website traffic congestion. But a further similarity lurks in the shadows, most often found at night time going for walks silently on 4 paws.

These metropolises are the world’s only megacities of 10 million-furthermore exactly where substantial felines — mountain lions in one, leopards in the other — thrive by breeding, hunting and sustaining territory inside of urban boundaries.

Extended-phrase experiments in each metropolitan areas have examined how the big cats prowl via their city jungles, and how individuals can greatest live alongside them — classes that might be relevant to much more destinations in coming many years.

“In the long term, there is likely to be a lot more cities like this, as urban parts even further encroach on normal habitats,” said biologist Audra Huffmeyer, who experiments mountain lions at the College of California, Los Angeles. “If we want to retain these huge carnivores close to on the planet, we have to learn to live with them.”


20 decades ago, experts in Los Angeles positioned a monitoring collar on their 1st cat, a substantial male mountain lion dubbed P1, that defended a vast swath of the Santa Monica Mountains, a coastal vary that lies within just and adjacent to the city.

“P1 was as significant as they get in southern California, about 150 pounds,” claimed Seth Riley, a Countrywide Park Provider ecologist who was element of the work. “These dominant males are the kinds that breed — they will not tolerate other grownup males in their territory.”

With GPS monitoring and camera traps, the scientists adopted the rise and drop of P1’s dynasty for seven many years, by means of a number of mates and litters of kittens. “2009 was the very last time we realized just about anything about P1,” claimed Riley. “There have to have been a battle. We found his collar, blood on a rock. And by no means saw him once again. He was reasonably aged.”

Considering that then, Riley has assisted collar all around 100 far more mountain lions in Los Angeles, developing a huge databases of lion habits that is contributed to knowledge how considerably territory the cats have to have, what they eat (mostly deer), how typically they cross paths with people and what might imperil their long term.

As with medieval European kings, the most significant menace turned out to be inbreeding. Living in tiny territories separated by highways has induced some males to mate with daughters and granddaughters, who weren’t able to obviously disperse farther absent. That’s led to genetic issues these as fertility concerns and kinked tails.

“Based on genetic evaluation, we know that P1 mated with P6, his daughter – that was the initial circumstance we documented of this incredibly shut inbreeding,” mentioned Riley.


In Mumbai, 1 of the world’s most densely populated cities, the leopards are packed in, way too: about 50 have adapted to a place preferably suited for 20. And nonetheless the nocturnal cats also maintain primarily out of sight.

“Because these animals are so secretive, you never know much about them. You just cannot just notice them,” said Vidya Athreya, director of Wildlife Conservation Society in India and aspect of a investigation crew that not long ago fitted five leopards with tracking collars.

The leopards’ core range is centered around Sanjay Gandhi Nationwide Park, a guarded location boxed on 3 sides by an urbanized landscape, such as a neighborhood that’s property to 100,000 persons and nearly a dozen leopards.

Researchers tackled unique queries from park supervisors, this kind of as how the cats cross chaotic streets close to the park.

To get the solution, they collared a significant male dubbed Maharaja. They discovered that it walked mostly at night time and traversed over 60 kilometers (37 miles) in about a 7 days, from the park in Mumbai to a further nearby. The leopard crossed a hectic state highway, making use of the similar location to go, on a few occasions. It also crossed a railway monitor.

The route decided on by Maharaja is nearby a new freeway and a freight corridor underneath design. Researchers explained that knowing the major cats’ freeway crossing practices can help plan makers make knowledgeable decisions about wherever to develop animal underpasses to cut down accidents.

Residing Along with Large CATS

In Los Angeles, long-expression mountain lion exploration showing the hurt of fragmented habitat served gasoline a effective marketing campaign to make a wildlife crossing bridge in excess of U.S. Route 101, one of the city’s busiest freeways. Development began on April 22.

When it is concluded in 3 decades, the bridge will be protected in indigenous vegetation and consist of distinctive audio walls to minimize gentle and sounds disturbances for nocturnal animals. It will connect Santa Monica Mountains and Simi Hills, enlarging the relationship pool for resident mountain lions.

But studying to live along with cats is not only a make any difference of infrastructure choices, but also human possibilities and schooling.

When Athreya first began advocating for co-existence with Mumbai’s leopards, she was satisfied with skepticism and pushback from other biologists and coverage makers. They considered it would be impossible for huge cats to live together with persons without substantial friction, or even worse.

“The dominant narrative was about conflict,” she stated. But she served thrust the conversation to be about “negotiations, improving the circumstance for both equally wildlife and individuals.”

That is not to say residing together with a huge predator is without having perils. In Mumbai, Purvi Lote saw her to start with leopard when she was 5, on the porch of a relative’s property. Terrified, she ran again inside of to her mother. But now the 9-year-outdated states she is not as worried of the massive cats.

Like other children, she doesn’t move outdoors by itself just after dim. Young children and even adults vacation in groups at night time, although blaring songs from their telephones to assure that leopards aren’t shocked. But the most essential rule, in accordance to the youngster: “When you see a leopard, never trouble it.”

Steering clear of Fatal CONFLICTS

Leopards in Mumbai tailored to mainly hunt feral canines that recurrent rubbish dumps outside the house the forest and primarily attacked persons when cornered or attacked. But in 2010, 20 people today in Mumbai died in leopard assaults, stated Jagannath Kamble, an official at Mumbai’s protected forest.

The turning place was the realization that the understaffed forest office couldn’t just hold reacting to particular person attacks by capturing and transporting leopards to forests because they returned. In its place, it made a decision to aim on seeking to get persons to coexist with the predators.

Officers roped in volunteers, nongovernmental groups and the media for a public education and learning method in 2011. Considering that then, fatalities have dropped steadily and no a person has been killed in an attack considering that 2017.

The final identified target was Muttu Veli’s 4-year-old daughter Darshini. Veli, an place of work worker who came to Mumbai in 1996, said Darshini was playing outside their property in a slum at the edge of the forest and she just did not return household. Eventually, her mauled system was recovered.

“My daughter is gone. She won’t occur back,” he claimed.

In Los Angeles, there have been no human fatalities attributed to mountain lions, but one nonfatal assault on a child transpired in 2021.

The two metropolitan areas have learned that attempting to seize, eliminate or relocate the cats isn’t the response.

“Relocation and killing tends to make conflict worse,” said Beth Pratt, California regional director at Countrywide Wildlife Federation. “It’s far better to have a steady population, than one in which hierarchies and territories are disrupted.”

Avoidance is the safest system, she claimed. “These big cats are shy — they tend to keep away from human get hold of as a lot as they can. They’re really serious introverts of the animal kingdom.”


Larson documented from Washington and Ghosal from Mumbai, India.

On Twitter, stick to Larson @larsonchristina and Ghosal @aniruddhg1

Adhere to AP’s Science protection at


The Connected Push Health and Science Section gets help from the Howard Hughes Professional medical Institute’s Section of Science Education and learning. The AP is entirely responsible for all articles.

Share this post

Similar Posts